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CV Leonardo Borlini
Associate Professor
Department of Law

Personal page

Courses a.y. 2021/2022


Courses previous a.y.

Biographical note

M.sc in Economics, Law and Business Administration from Bocconi University (magna cum laude) and M.sc in Law (J.D. equivalent) from University of Pavia (magna cum laude). LL.M from the University of Cambridge. Ph.D. in International Law and Economics from Bocconi University. Visiting Professor at the School of Transnational Law at the Peking University and NWO Grant Visiting Researcher at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam.  He was 2019 Fulbright Research Scholar at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (Tufts University, MA, USA).

Since 2012 a member of the Department of Legal Studies of Bocconi University and a Faculty Member of the PhD in Legal Studies. He is a fellow at the BAFFI CAREFIN (Centre for Applied Research on International Markets, Banking, Finance and Regulation). Leonardo Borlini held prior academic appointments at the Department of Legal Studies of Bocconi University and the Faculty of Political Sciences of LUISS – Libera Università Internazionale degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli, or the Guido Carli Free International University for Social Studies.

He is part of the United Nations Expert Group working on Anti-Corruption Academic materials (Academic Initiative Against Corruption-UNODC); Research Fellow for the Research Centre on International Cooperation Regarding Persons Sought for Corruption and Asset Recovery established by the G20 at the Beijing Normal University and member of the Wolfson College (University of Cambridge, UK). He has held visiting research scholarships and positions at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (Tufts University); Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva; Normal Beijing University; Legal Department of the International Monetary Fund (IMF); and the World Bank Group. He is Visiting Professor at the School of Transnational Law of the Peking University and the Normal Beijing University. He is also Attorney-at-Law at the Milan Bar.

In 2021 he obtained the National Scientific Qualification as Full Professor in International Law (ASN-I Fascia) by the Commission's unanimous decision. In 2018 he obtained the National Scientific Qualification as Associate Professor in International Law (ASN-II Fascia) by the Commission's unanimous decision. 

In spring 2018, Leonardo was awarded a Fulbright Research Scholar Grant by the US-Italy Commission to carry out a project on multi-level regulation of international public goods at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy at Tufts University. For the same project, he has was also awarded the University Bocconi-Fondazione Romeo and Enrica Invernizzi Research Grant and, in March 2020, an NWO Travel Research Grant by the Dutch Council of Research to finalize his work at the Erasmus University of Rotterdam in the context of the Initiative Dynamics of Inclusive Prosperity. In June 2020, Leonardo Borlini and Greta Nasi were also awarded by the Embassy of the United States in Rome a 2020 Alumni Small Grants for the Project “Redesign municipal services to create city value in the aftermath of Covid-19.”

Professor Borlini’s research has been published or is forthcoming in journals such as the European Journal of International Law, Leiden Journal of International LawVirginia Journal of International Law, Revue générale de droit international public, Journal of International Criminal Justice, the Columbia Journal of European Law, the Georgetown Journal of International Law, the Yearbook of European Law, the European Competition Law Journal.

For his article Deepening International Systems of Subsidy Control in EU PTAs: A Comparative Analysis. Normative Rationales and Legal Implications, (with C. Dordi), in 23(3) Columbia Journal of European Law, 2016/17, 551, in May 2019, Dr. Borlini received the ‘Leonardo Da Vinci Medal’, awarded for the best scientific or artistic original work by an Italian young researcher.

Apart from his academic appointments, Leonardo has served the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as a Technical Assistance Specialist and authored and co-authored reports commissioned by the Council of Europe, the European Commission, the Inter-American Development Bank (IADB), the World Bank (Public Accountability Mechanism), and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). He was a member of the Italian delegation to the V Conference of State Parties of the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC). He took part as an expert invited to the OECD Working Group on Bribery, the Implementation Review Group of the UNCAC, and the Group of States against Corruption (GRECO) of the Council of Europe.

He is Associate Editor of Global Jurist and a member of the Editorial Board of the Italian Yearbook of International Law and Diritto del Commercio Internazionale. He is also a member of the Advisory Board of “Bocconi Legal Papers” and external referee of the book series Cambridge Series in International and Comparative Law (Cambridge University Press) law journals such as the Journal of International Economic Law, Leiden Journal of International Law, Journal of International Dispute Settlement, Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law, European Papers, New Journal of European Criminal Law, Ars InterpretandiDiritti umani e diritto internazionale, Diritto Pubblico Comparato ed Europeo.

Academic CV

Associate Professor of International law. Faculty Member del Ph.D. in Legal Studies and Fellow at the Baffi CAREFIN (Centre for Applied Research on International Markets, Banking, Finance and Regulation). He is also a member of the Bocconi Covid Crisis Lab and Bocconi Lab in European Studies.

Leonardo Borlini was a 2019 Fulbright Research Scholar at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy (Tufts University, MA, USA). He is Visiting Professor at the Peking University School of Transnational Law and a recurrent Visiting Professor at the Bejing Normal University. He is also a Guest Researcher for the Research Centre on International Cooperation Regarding Persons Sought for Corruption and Asset Recovery established by the G20 at the Beijing Normal University and a member of the Wolfson College (University of Cambridge, UK).

He currently teaches International Law, Law International Trade and Investment Law, Topics in International and European Law, Comparative Business and European Law, e National and International Institutions Law.


Research areas

Professor Borlini is a generalist public international lawyer with a keen interest in international economic law. He has worked on a variety of specialist areas, such as Law of Treaties; International Economic Law; International Trade Law; UN Maintenance of International Peace and Security; International Criminal Law (focus: Terrorism; Corruption, Organized Crime; Money Laundering and Terrorist Financing); Human Rights; and the Law of the EU (External Action; Common Commercial Policy, Competition policy).




Il Consiglio di Sicurezza e gli individui, (Giuffrè: Milan, 2018) (Positively reviewed by Prof. Robert Kolb in 60 German Yearbook of International Law 2018, 585)

Corruption – Economic Analysis and International Law, (with M. Arnone), (Edward Elgar: Cheltenham UK/Northampton MA, USA); Positively reviewed by Prof. Gabriella Venturini, in 1 Rivista di diritto internazionale, 2015, 330; Prof. Gerry Ferguson, in 28 European Journal of International Law, 2017, 3439

Articles in Law Journals (in English) 

Collective Security and Organized Crime: A Critical Discourse, 54(3) New York University Journal of International Law & Politics, 2021-2022 (forthcoming).

Not Such a Retrospective: On the implementation of the International Anti-corruption Obligations in Italy, 21(4) International Criminal Law Review, 2021, 784-808.

The UN Security Council Faces Organized Crime: Enforcement Strategies, Fact-Finding, and Regulation, in 19(2) Journal of International Criminal Justice, 2021 (forthcoming).

The Security Council and Non-State Domestic Actors: Changes in Non-Forcible Measures between International Lawmaking and Peacebuilding, 61(3) Virginia Journal of International Law, 2021, 489–552.

On Financial Nationalism and International LawSovereignty, Cooperation and Hard/Soft Governance in International Finance, 30(3) European Journal of International Law, 2020, 1123-1155.

When the Leviathan Goes to the Market: A Critical Evaluation of the Rules Governing State-Owned Enterprises in Trade Agreements, 33(2) Leiden Journal of International Law, 2020, 313-334.

The Legal Status of Decisions by Human Rights Treaty Bodies: Authoritative Interpretations or Mission Éducatrice? (with Luigi Crema), 19(1) Global Community Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence 2019, (Oxford University Press: 2020), 129-158.

International Contestability of Markets and the Visible Hand. Trade Regulation of State-owned Enterprises between Multilateral Impasse and New Free Trade Agreements, (with P. Clarke), in 26(3) Columbia Journal of European Law, 2019/20, 84-130.

A Crisis Looming in the Dark: Some Remarks on the Reform Proposals on Notifications and Transparency, in Questions of International Law - ZOOM OUT (69) 3 - “In Clinical Isolation”. Is There a Meaningful Place for the World Trade Organization in the Future of International Economic Law?, 2019, 83-111, available at: http://www.qil-qdi.org/in-clinical-isolation-is-there-a-meaningful-place-for-the-world-trade-organization-in-the-future-of-international-economic-law/

Regulating Criminal Finance in the EU in the Light of the International Instruments, 36 (1) Yearbook of European Law 2017, (Oxford UniversityPress: 2018), pp. 553–598, available at: https://academic.oup.com/yel/advance-access

Defining Elements and Emerging Legal Issues of ‘EU Sanctions’, (with S. Silingardi), XXVII, Italian Yearbook of International Law 2017, (Brill:2018), pp. 33-52.

Deepening International Systems of Subsidy Control in EU PTAs: A Comparative Analysis. Normative Rationales and Legal Implications, (with C.Dordi), 23(3) Columbia Journal of European Law, 2016/17, 551-606. Awards:  *University Bocconi Legal Studies Award 2018; ** “Leonardo Da Vinci” Medal 2019.

The North Korean Gauntlet, International Law and the New Sanctions Imposed by the Security Council, in XXVI Italian Yearbook of international law 2016, (Brill: 2017), 319-345.

State Aid Control and Subsidies Regulation in EU Agreements: Substance, Procedure, and Policy Space in the ‘New Generation’ EU FTAs, 16(1) The Global Community: Yearbook of International Law and Jurisprudence 2016, (Oxford University Press: 2017), 145-174. 

The Evolution of the EU Law Against Criminal Finance: The ‘Hardening’ of FATF Standards within the EU, (with F. Montanaro), 48(4) Georgetown Journal of International Law, 2017, 1009-1062. 

International Asset Recovery: Origins, Evolution and Current Challenges, (with G. Nessi), 28(2), Diritto del Commercio Internazionale, 2014,377-415.

International Anti-Money Laundering Programs: Empirical Assessment and Issues of Criminal Regulation, (with M. Arnone), 13 (2), Journal of Money Laundering Control, 2010, 226-271.  Award: Highly Commended Award Winner by Emerald Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2011.

Methodological Issues of the “More Economic Approach” to Unilateral Exclusionary Conduct. Proposal of Analysis Starting from the Treatment of Retroactive Rebates, in 5(2) European Competition Journal, 2009, 409-449.

Legal and Economic Appraisal of the “More Economic Approach” to Unilateral Exclusionary Conduct: Regulation of Loyalty-Inducing Rebates(Case C-95/04P), 14(1) Yearbook of European Law 2008, (Oxford University Press, 2009), 446-518.

Issues of International Criminal Regulation of Money Laundering in the Context of Economic Globalization, in 22(1) Diritto del commercio internazionale, 2008, 37-110, also available in the “Paolo Baffi” Centre Working Paper Series, online at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1296636

Articles in Refereed Law Journals (in French)

Le Conseil de sécurité des Nations Unies et les entités non étatiques, (with R. Kolb), 125(1) Revue Générale de Droit International Public, 2021, 23-54.

Articles in Refereed Law Journals (in Italian)

Il valore delle pronunce del Comitato europeo dei diritti sociali ai fini dell’interpretazione della Carta sociale europea nel diritto internazionale, (with L. Crema) in Forum di Quaderni Costituzionali. La normativa italiana sui licenziamenti: quale compatibilità con la Costituzione e la Carta sociale europea?, 2018, 86-106, at: http://www.forumcostituzionale.it/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/atti-convegno-jobs-act.pdf

Soft law, soft organizations e regolamentazione ‘tecnica’ di problemi di sicurezza pubblica e integrità finanziaria, in 100 (2) Rivista di dirittointernazionale, 2017, 356-406.

Tutela della privacy e protezione dei dati personali a fronte della sicurezza pubblica e dell’integrità del sistema finanziario europeo, in 11(1) Dirittiumani e diritto internazionale, 2017, 23-49.

Le disciplina delle State-owned enterprises nel diritto del commercio internazionale tra stallo degli accordi commerciali multilaterali e accordipreferenziali di nuova generazione, in 31(4) Diritto del commercio internazionale, 2017, 967-1004.

L’Unione Europea: attore ‘globale’ nella protezione e promozione dei diritti umani? Limiti e prospettive, 28(4) DPCE online, 2016, 91-132,available at:  www.dpce.it/dpceonline2016-4/

Linee evolutive della normativa internazionale in materia di Asset Recovery, 26(4) Diritto del commercio internazionale, 2012, 585-611.

Considerazioni sull’approccio evolutivo nell’attività interpretativa della Corte Internazionale di Giustizia nel Caso Costa Rica c Nicaragua, LXV (2) La Comunità Internazionale, 2010, 283-292.

La lotta alla corruzione internazionale. Dall’ambito OCSE alla dimensione ONU (with P. Magrini), 21(1) Diritto del Commercio Internazionale, 2007, 15-127.

Articles in Collected Volumes (in English)                                                                       

The Foundations of International Economic Order in the Age of State Capitalism in P. Delimatis, G. Dimitropoulos, A. Gourgourinis (eds.), State Capitalism and Investment Law, (Hart: Oxford, 2022), forthcoming.

Money Laundering, Combating, in A. Peters (ed.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (Oxford University Press, 2022) forthcoming.

Italy – Country Report, (with Carlo De Stefano), in T. Cottier, K. Nadakavukaren Schefer (eds.), Elgar Encyclopedia of International Economic Law. Vol. II (Edward Elgar: Cheltenham UK/Northampton MA US,  2022), forthcoming.

Economic Analysis and International Law, in A. Carty (ed.) Oxford Bibliographies in International Law (Oxford University Press: 2021), forthcoming.

Compliance and Privatization of Law Enforcement. A Study of the Italian Legislation in the Light of the US experience, (with S. Lonati), in A. Makinwa, T. Søreide (eds.), Negotiated Settlements in Bribery Cases: A Principled Approach, (Edward Elgar Publishing: Cheltenham UK/Northampton MA US, 2020), 278-306.

Enforcement of International Arbitration Awards, (with S. Silingardi) in J. Chaisse, L. Choukroune, S Jusoh (eds.) Handbook of International Investment Law and Policy, (Springer: New York City, 2020), 1-24, available at: https://link.springer.com/referencewo

Article 26. Liability of Legal Persons, in C. Rose, M. Kubiciel, O. Landwehr (eds.), A Commentary on the United Nations Convention against Corruption, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2019), 274-286.

Article 60. Training and Technical Assistance,  in C. Rose, M. Kubiciel, O. Landwehr (eds.), A Commentary on the United Nations Convention against Corruption, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2019), 605-615.

Article 61. Collection, Exchange and Analysis of Information on Corruption, in C. Rose, M. Kubiciel, O. Landwehr (eds.), A Commentary on the United Nations Convention against Corruption, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2019), 616-620.

Article 62. Other measures: Implementation of the Convention through Economic Development and Technical Assistance, in C. Rose, M. Kubiciel, O. Landwehr (eds.), A Commentary on the United Nations Convention against Corruption, (Oxford University Press: Oxford, 2019), 621-626.

The EU’s Promotion of Human Rights and Sustainable Development through PTAs as a Tool to Influence Business Regulation in Third Countries, in A. Bonfanti (ed.), Business and Human Rights in Europe: International Law Challenges, (Routledge: London, 2018), 71-83.

The Economics of Money Laundering, in P. Reichel, J. Albanese (eds.), Handbook of Transnational Crime and Justice. 2nd ed., (SAGE Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, 2014), 227-243.

A Claim for “Soft Solutions” in Interconnecting the EU and WTO Legal System - Constitutional Issues and Implementation Exceptions: Is It Time to Lift Rigid Structures?, in C. Dordi (ed.) The Direct Effect of WTO Law in the European Community Legal System and in Other Countries. (Giappichelli: Turin, 2010), 79-119.

Articles in Collected Volumes (In Italian):

Il controllo internazionale tra standardizzazione, coordinamento e ‘contaminazione’, in A. Annoni, S. Forlati, F. Salerno (eds.), La codificazione nell'ordinamento internazionale ed europeo, (ES: Naples, 2019), 591-625.